We developed a method, ChIP-sequencing (ChIP-seq), combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and massively parallel sequencing to identify mammalian DNA sequences bound by transcription factors in vivo. We used ChIP-seq to map STAT1 targets in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated and unstimulated human HeLa S3 cells, and compared the method's performance to ChIP-PCR and to ChIP-chip for four chromosomes. By ChIP-seq, using 15.1 and 12.9 million uniquely mapped sequence reads, and an estimated false discovery rate of less than 0.001, we identified 41,582 and 11,004 putative STAT1-binding regions in stimulated and unstimulated cells, respectively. Of the 34 loci known to contain STAT1 interferon-responsive binding sites, ChIP-seq found 24 (71%). ChIP-seq targets were enriched in sequences similar to known STAT1 binding motifs. Comparisons with two ChIP-PCR data sets suggested that ChIP-seq sensitivity was between 70% and 92% and specificity was at least 95%
Regulated genes (or markers): 6470
Regulatory sequences (genomic): 10958
Regulatory sequences (artificial): 0
Transcription factors: 1
Transcription factor profiles: 0
Annotated publications: 1
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